General References on the History of Anthropological Thought and the Notion of Culture
Borofsky, Robert et al. 2001. "WHEN: A conversation about culture" American Anthropologist 103(2): 432-446.
Special Issue of Current Anthropology. 1999. "Culture. A Second Chance?" 40 Supplement.
Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1991. "Writing against culture" In Recapturing anthropology. Richard Fox, Ed. Santa Fe: School of American Research.
Bohannan, Paul and Mark Glazer. Eds. 1988. High points in anthropology. McGraw-Hill, Inc.: New York.
Borofsky, Robert. Ed. 1994. Assessing cultural anthropology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Fox, Robert G. 1995. "Cultural dis-Integration and the invention of new peace-fares." In Articulating hidden histories. J Schneider and R. Rapp, Eds. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fox, Richard and Barbara King, Eds. 2002. Anthropology beyond culture. Oxford : Berg Publishers, Inc.
Harris, Marvin. 1968. The rise of anthropological theory: A history of theories of culture. New York: Crowell.
Herzfeld, Michael. 2001. Anthropology: Theoretical practice in culture and society. Oxford: Balckwell Publishers.
Keesing, Roger M. 1974. "Theories of culture". Annual Review of Anthropology 3: 73-97.
Kroeber, Albert. L. and Clyde Kluckhohn. 1952. Culture: a critical review of concepts and definitions. New York: Vintage.
Kroeber, Alfred L. and Talcott Parsons. 1958. "The concept of culture and of social system." American Sociological Review 23: 582-583.
Kuper, Adam. 1973. Anthropology and anthropologists: The British school, 1922-1972. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kuper, Adam. 1999. Culture: The anthropologist's account. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Langness, L. L. 1974. The study of culture. New York: Chandler and Sharp Publishers.
McGee, Jon R. and Richard L Warms. 1996. Anthropological theory: An introductory history. London: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Munch, Richard, and Neil J Smelser. 1992. Theory of culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ortner, Sherry B. 1984. "Theory in anthropology since the sixties". Comparative Studies in Society and History 26: 126-166.
Schneider, Louis and Bonjean, Charles. M. 1973. The idea of culture in the social sciences. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
Stocking, George. 1966 piece in PDF
Stocking, George W. 1968. Race, culture, and evolution: Essays in the history of anthropology. New York: Free Press.
Wright, Susan. 1998. "The politicization of 'culture'" Anthropology Today 14(1): 7-15.
Barnard, Alan and J. Spencer. 1996. Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology. London: Routledge.
Barfield, Thomas. 1997. The dictionary of anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Ingold, Tim. 1994. Companion encyclopedia of anthropology: Humanity, culture, and social life. London: Routledge.
Frazer, Sir James George. 1911-1915 . The golden bough: A study in magic and religion. London: Macmillan.
Lubbock, John. 1865. Prehistoric times: As illustrated by ancient remains and the manners and
customs of modern savages. London: William and Norgate.
Maine, Henry. 1861. Ancient law: Its connection with the early history of society and its relation to modern ideas. London: Murray.
Morgan, Lewis Henry. 1871. Systems of consanguinity and affinity of the human family. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge no. 218, vol.17. Washington: Smithsonian.
Morgan, Lewis Henry. 1985 . Ancient society. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Spencer, Herbert. 1885. The principles of sociology, 2 vols. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett. 1871. Primitive culture. London: John Murray
Boas, Franz . 1911. The mind of primitive man. New York: Macmillan.
Boas, Franz. 1940 Race, language and culture. New York: Macmillan.
Haddon, Alfred C. 1908 The study of man. London: J. Murray.
Kroeber, Alfred. L 1939 Cultural and natural area of Native North America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ratzel, Friedrich. 1896 (orig. 1885-88) The History of Mankind. A. J. Butler, trans. London: Macmillan.
Rivers, William H. R. 1914. Kinship and social organization. London: Constable
Rivers, William. H. R. 1922. History and Ethnology. New York: Macmillan.
Rivers, William. H. R. 1934. "Primitive Man." European Civilization. E. Eyre, Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rivers, William. H. R.. 1939. The Culture Historical Method of Ethnology. S.A. Sieber, trans. New York: Fortuny's.
Wissler, Clark. 1917. The American Indian: An introduction to the anthropology of the New World. New York: McMurtrie.
Wissler, Clark 1923. Man and culture. New York: Crowell.
Boas, Franz. 1911. The mind of primitive man. New York: Macmillan.
Boas, Franz. 1928. Anthropology and modern life. New York: Norton.
Boas, Franz. 1940. Race, language, and culture. New York Macmillan.
Goldschmidt, Walter, Ed. 1959. "The anthropology of Franz Boas: Essays on the centennial of his birth." American Anthropologist 61(5).
Kroeber, Alfred L. 1917. "The superorganic" American Anthropologist 19: 207-236.
Kroeber, Alfred L. 1944. Configurations of culture growth. Berkley: University of California Press.
Kroeber, Alfred L. 1952. The nature of culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lowie, Robert H. 1920. Primitive society. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Lowie, Robert H. 1937. The history of ethnological theory. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.
Radin, Paul. 1933. The method and theory of ethnology: An essay in criticism. New York: Basic Books.
Radin, Paul. 1953. The world of primitive man. New York: Grove Press
Sapir, Edward. 1916. Time perspectives in Aboriginal American culture. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.
Sapir, Edward. 1915. "Do we need a superorganic?" American Anthropologist 19: 441-449.
Culture and Personality
Benedict, Ruth. 1932. "Configurations of culture in North America" American Anthropologist 34: 1-27.
Benedict, Ruth. 1934. Patterns of culture. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Benedict, Ruth. 1946. The chrysanthemum and the sword: Patterns of Japanese culture. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Freud, Sigmund. 1918. Totem and taboo: Resemblances between the psychic lives of savages and neurotics. New York: Mofatt.
Hsu, Francis. Ed. 1961. Psychological anthropology: Approaches to culture and personality. Homewood IL: Dorsey.
Kardiner, Abram. 1939. The individual and his society: The psychodynamics of primitive social organization. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kardiner, Abram. 1945. The psychological frontiers of society. New York: Columbia University Press.
Linton, Ralph. 1945. The cultural background of personality. New York: Appleton-Century.
Mead, Margaret. 1928. Coming of age in Samoa: A psychological study of primitive youth for Western civilization. New York: Morrow
Mead, Margaret. 1935. Sex and temperament in three primitive societies. London: Routledge.
Mead, Margaret. 1942. And keep your powder dry: An anthropologist looks at America. New York: Morrow.
Mead, Margaret. 1953. "National character" In Anthropology today. Ed. A.L. Kroeber. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press
Sapir, Edward. 1949. Selected writings of Edward Sapir in culture, language, and personality. Berkeley: Language Behavior Research Laboratory.
Wallace, Anthony. 1961. Culture and personality. New York: Random.
Functionalism or British Social Anthropology
Evans-Pritchard, Edward. E. 1940. The Nuer. Oxford: Clarendon.
Evans-Pritchard, Edward. E. 1962. Social anthropology and other essays. New York: Free Press
Firth, Raymond. 1951. Elements of social organization. London: Watts.
Firth, Raymond. 1957. Man and culture: An evaluation of the work of Bronislaw Malinowski. London: Routledge.
Gluckman, Max . 1947. "Malinowski's contribution to social anthropology." African Studies 6: 57-76
Goldschmidt, Walter. 1966. Comparative functionalism: An essay in anthropological theory. Berkeley: University of California Press
Kuper, Adam. 1977. The social anthropology of Radcliffe-Brown. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1935. Coral gardens and their magic. New York: American.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1944. A scientific theory of culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1922. The Andaman Islanders: A study in social anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1952. Structure and function in primitive society. London: Cohen & West.
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1957. A natural science of society. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. and Daryll Forde, eds. 1950. African systems of kinship and marriage. London: Oxford University Press.
The Manchester School
Bailey, Frederick. G. 1960. Tribe, caste, and nation: A study of political activity and political change in Highland Orissa. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Barnes, John. A. 1954. Politics in a changing society. London: Oxford University Press for Rhodes-Livingstone Institute.
Barth, Fredrik. 1965. Political leadership among Swat Pathans. London: Athlone.
Colson, Elizabeth. 1953. Social control and vengeance in Plateau Tonga society. Africa 23:199-212.
Colson, Elizabeth. 1971. The social consequences of resettlement: The impact of the Kariba resettlement upon the Gwembe Tonga. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Epstein, Adrian. L. 1958. Politics in an urban African community. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Gluckman, Max. 1940. "Analysis of a social situation in modern Zululand." Bantu Studies. 14:1-30, 147-174.
Gluckman, Max. 1955. The judicial process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Gluckman, Max. 1955. Custom and conflict in Africa. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gluckman, Max. 1963. Order and rebellion in tribal Africa. London: Cohen & West.
Leach, Edmund R. 1954. Political systems of Highland Burma: A study of Kachin social structure. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
Marwick, Max. G. 1965. Sorcery in its social setting: A study of the Northern Rhodesian Cewa. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Mitchell, Clyde J. 1956. The Kalela dance: Aspects of social relationships among urban Africans in Northern Rhodesia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Turner, Victor. 1957. Schism and continuity in African society: A study of Ndembu village life. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Werbner, Richard P. 1984. "The Manchester School In South-Central Africa." Annual Review of Anthropology 13:157-85
Harris, Marvin. 1966. "The cultural ecology of India's sacred cattle." Current Anthropology 7: 51-66.
Harris, Marvin. 1974. Cows, pigs, wars, and witches: The riddles of culture. New York: Random.
Harris, Marvin. 1977. Cannibals and kings: The origins of culture. New York: Random.
Harris, Marvin. 1979. Cultural materialism: The struggle for a science of culture. New York: Random.
Milton, Kay. 1997. Ecologies: Anthropology, culture and the environment. Electronic document. http://web7.searchbank.com. February 5,1999
Moran, Emilio F. 1979. Human adaptability: An introduction to ecological anthropology. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.
Moran, Emilio F. 1990. The ecosystem approach in anthropology: From concept to practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Murphy Martin, and Maxine Margolis, Eds. 1995. Science, materialism, and the study of culture. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
Netting, Robert McC. 1977. Cultural ecology. [2nd edition]. Prospect heights, IL: Waveland.
Rappaport, Roy. 1967. Pigs for the ancestors. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rappaport, Roy. 1979. Ecology, meaning, and religion. Richmond, CA: North Atlantic.
Ross, Eric, Ed. 1980. Beyond the myths of culture: Essays in cultural materialism. New York: Academic.
Steward, Julian. 1955. Theory of culture change: The methodology of multilinear evolution. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Steward, Julian. 1977. Evolution and ecology: Essays on social transformations. Jane C. Steward and Robert F. Murphy, Eds. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Vayda, Andrew P., Ed. 1969. Environment and cultural behavior: Ecological studies in cultural anthropology. Garden City, New York: Natural History.
White, Leslie. 1959. The evolution of culture. New York: Grove Press.
White, Leslie. 1959. "Culture concept" American Anthropologist 61:22-252.
Clarke, Simon. 1981. The foundations of structuralism. Sussex: The Harvester Press.
Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge.
Douglas, Mary. 1970. Natural symbols. London: Barrie & Rockcliff.
Douglas, Mary. 1975. Implicit meanings: Essays in anthropology. London: Routledge.
Hage, Per and Frank Harary. 1983. Structural models in anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lane, Michael. 1970. Introduction to structuralism. New York: Basic Books.
Leach, Edmund, Ed. 1960. Aspects of caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leach, Edmund. Ed. 1967. The structural study of myth and totemism. London: Tavistock.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1963. Structural anthropology. New York: Basic.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1966. The savage mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1969. The elementary structures of kinship. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Pettit, Philip. 1975. The concept of structuralism: A critical analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1959. Course in general linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.
Sturrock, John. Ed. 1986. Structuralism. London: Paladin Grafton Books.
Asad, Talal. 1983. Anthropological concepts of religion: Reflections on Geertz. Man (N.S.) 18:237-59.
Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic.
Geertz, Clifford. 1983. Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretive anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
Geertz, Clifford., Ed. 1974. Myth, symbol, and culture. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.
Parker, Richard. 1985. "From symbolism to interpretation: Reflections on the work of Clifford Geertz". Anthropology and Humanism Quarterly 10(3):62-67.
Prattis, J. Ian. 1997. Parsifal and semiotic structuralism. In Anthropology at the Edge: Essays on Culture, Symbol, and Consciousness. Lanham: University Press of America, Inc.
Sahlins, Marshall. 1976. Culture and practical reason. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Schneider, David. 1968. American kinship: A cultural account. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Turner, Victor W. 1967. The forest of symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Turner, Victor W. 1974. Dramas, fields and metaphors: Symbolic action in human society. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Bloch, Maurice. Ed. 1975. Marxist analyses and social anthropology. New York: Wiley
Bloch, Maurice. 1983. Marxism and anthropology: The history of a relationship. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Donham, Donald L. 1990. History, power, ideology: Central issues in Marxism and anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Godelier, Maurice. 1977. Perspectives in Marxist anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Kahn, Joel, and Josep Llobera. 1981. The anthropology of pre-capitalist societies. London: Macmillan.
Meillasoux, Claude. 1981. Maidens, meal, and money: Capitalism and the domestic community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sahlins, Marshall. 1972. Stone age economics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Terray, Emmanuel. 1972. Marxism and "primitive" societies. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Vincent, Joan. 1990. Anthropology and politics: Visions, traditions, and trends. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
Wolf, Eric. 1982. Europe and the people without history. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Practice Theory and Precursors
Bailey, Frederick G. 1969. Stratagems and spoils: A social anthropology of politics. Oxford: Blackwell
Barth, Fredrik. 1966. Models of social organization. London: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Occasional Paper no. 23.
Barth, Fredrik. Ed. 1969. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
Barth, Fredrik. 1981. Process and form in social life. London: Routledge.
Blumer, Herbert. 1969. Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a theory of practice [Esquisse d'une theorie de la pratique]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste [La Distinction] Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990. The logic of practice. [Sens Pratique]. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goffman, Erving. 1956. The presentation of self in everyday life. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu. London: Routledge.
Kapferer, Bruce. Ed. 1976. Transaction and meaning: Directions in the anthropology of exchange and symbolic behavior. Philadelphia, PA: ISHI
Kuhn, Manfred H. 1964. "Major trends in symbolic interaction theory in the past twenty-five years." Sociological Quarterly 5:61-84.
Lewis, J. David, and Richard J. Smith. 1980. American sociology and pragmatism: Mead, Chicago sociology, and symbolic interaction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mead, George H. 1934. Mind, self, and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ortner, Sherry. 1984. "Theory in anthropology since the sixties". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 26: 126-166.
Reynolds, Larry T. 1990. Interactionism: Exposition and critique. 2nd edition. Dix Hills, N.Y.: General Hall.
Clifford, James and George Marcus. Eds. 1986. Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Crapanzano, Vincent. 1992. Hermes' dilemma and Hamlet's desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Foucault, Michel. 1970. The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences [Mots et les choses]. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 1972. The archaeology of knowledge [Archeologie du savoir]. New York: Harper & Row.
Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and punish [Surveiller et punir]. New York: Pantheon.
Marcus, George E. and Dick Cushman. 1982. "Ethnographies as texts". Annual Review of Anthropology 11: 25-69.
Marcus, George and Michael M. J. Fisher. 1986. Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
O'Meara, J. Tim. 1989. "Anthropology as empirical science". American Anthropologist 91: 354-369.
Rabinow, Paul and W.M. Sullivan. Eds. 1979. Interpretive social science: A reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rosaldo, Renato. 1989. Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Transnationalism and Globalization
Alvarez, Robert M Jr. 1995. "The Mexico-U.S. border: The making of an anthropology of borderlands" Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 447-470.
Appadurai, Arjun. 1991. "Global ethnoscapes: Notes on queries for a transnational anthropology" In Recapturing anthropology. Richard Fox, Ed. Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press.
Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. "Soveriegnty without territoriality: Notes for a postnational geography" In The geography of identity. Patricia Yaeger, Ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Gupta, Akhil, and James Ferguson. 1992. "Beyond 'culture': Space, identity, and the politics of difference" Cultural Anthropology 7: 6-23.
Gupta, Akhil, and James Ferguson. Eds. 1997. Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology. Durnham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Hannerz, Ulf. 1996. Transnational connections: Culture, people, places. New York: Routeledge.
Kearney, Michael. 1991. "Borders and boundaries of state and self at the end of an empire" Journal of Historical Sociology 4: 52-74.
Kearney, Michael. 1995. "The local and the global: The anthropology of globalization and transnationalism" Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 547-565.
Rouse, Roger. 1995. "Thinking through transnationalism: Notes on the cultural politics of class relations in the contemporary United States" Public Culture 7: 353:402.